A few weeks ago I got some new information about clients I will be evaluating this month. I found myself opening my ESL file on my computer to see what information I had about determining difference and disorder for multicultural students. My second stop was Smart Speech Therapy, where Tatyana blogs about a variety of these issues.
While browsing posts on her page, I decided that two documents looked like just what I was looking for! Tatyana kindly agreed to let me review them for you today on SRN. The Multicultural Assessment and Treatment Bundle features two presentations.
Language Difference vs. Language Disorder: Assessment & Intervention Strategies for SLPs Working with Bilingual Children.
The Difference versus disorder packets aims to “discuss how to provide effective evidence based practice assessments to bilingual children in order to differentiate English Language Learners from bilingual children with true language disorders. It will also offer recommendations regarding therapeutic interventions with bilingual children with language impairments.”
The packet is 129 slides with learning outcomes that include:
Describe the sequence of typical bilingual language development
Explain the process of second language acquisition in children
Contrast how communication differences and communication disorders manifest in bilingual children
Discuss research driven evidence based practices in assessment of bilingual children
Demonstrate potential limitations of standardized testing
Explain concerns regarding standard score reporting for bilingual Limited English Proficient (LEP) children
Illustrate how to use alternative, non standardized methods to reduce assessment bias
Describe research driven evidence based practices in treatment of bilingual children with confirmed speech-language disorders
What I loved most about Tatyana’s Difference/Disorder packet is the evidence based refresher on language development in bilingual children. I’m so excited to have this on my shelf! I will be able to pull it out and cite search as needed when assessments include bilingual children. I’m putting some of the things I learned in bullet points below.
In Simultaneous Language Learners:
*If bilingual children are mixing grammatical systems, they are not developing within normal bilingual limits and may require therapeutic intervention
*Monolinguals compared to Bilinguals: Temporary transfer errors from L1-L2 are possible but the timing for language milestones and the sequence of development are similar.
*Dual language learning does NOT cause confusion/language delays in young children (Espinosa, 2008; DeHouwer, 2009; Paradis, et al., 2011)
**Temporary transfer errors from L1-L2 are possible but the timing for language milestones and the sequence of development are similar
In Sequential Language Learners:
*Areas that are supportive to two cultures and languages such as Canada (English/French) are likely to achieve high degree of bilingual proficiency. In areas where the language and culture of the group is less supported and valued, such as Spanish immigrant families in the US, many more language enriched opportunities will be required to become proficient.
* In older L2 learnings, quality of input and opportunities for L2 interaction mediate second language outcomes (Dixon et al., 2012)
When assessing SPEECH:
Determine phonemic influences on English: Perform contrastive analysis
Do these sounds exist in English and vise versa?
Similar sounds across two languages may not be used the same way (only used in WF vs. all word positions)
Tatyana includes link to sound difference in specific languages within the resource.
When assessing LANGUAGE:
There will be characteristics that overlap in both language (Rosenberry-McKibben 1995) such as attention and memory deficits. Short sentence length, over reliance on gestures, low verbal output, grammatical errors, low vocabulary and poor comprehension will be present in both language in a disorder.
I thought Tatyana brought up some nice points about assessment. For example:
-When using caregiver reporting using the REEL-3, you are assuming that all cultures teach specific skills such as labeling while meaningfully interacting with their children.
-EOWPVT includes some normative data from other cultures. The normative data for the Spanish version used only children from Mexico.
Several other assessments are reviewed with concerns discussed.
Dynamic Assessments are recommended and discussed. Links and references to ASHA are included. Tatyana lists the steps she uses in deciding which assessment to use. Remember that often standardized scores are not valid for our bilingual learners. Although your school or state may require you to submit a standardized score, that may not be a true reflection of skill. I love this disclaimer she included to be used in your reports:
“Note: The following test/s __________were normed on typical English
speaking children. Testing materials are not available in standardized form for
child‟s unique bilingual/bicultural background. In accordance with IDEA 2004
(The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) [20 U.S.C..1414(3)],
official use of standard scores for this child would be inaccurate and misleading
so the results reported are presented in descriptive form. Raw scores are
provided here only for comparison with future performance.”
Approaches are included for pages 103-
*Genesee & Nicoladis., 2006 found that gains transfer from L1 to L2 for vocabulary
* Language treatment in L1 for children whose L2 skills are weaker will create quicker results than beginning treatment in L2 (Esquivel & Yoshida, 1985)
*When providing intervention follow a hierarchy of skill attainment and attempt to incorporate multicultural/multilingual practices
Overall this packet provides the perfect refresher or introduction to assessment and treatment for SLPs. I appreciate the large amount of research references in one place. The assessment considerations are the most valuable to me as I begin a new assignment as the evaluator for my preschool position. The presentation is easy to read and also cites the conflicting research in a few topics, which I find helpful!
Improvements: The major component missing in this packet for me is a full list of citations. Tatyana includes the references throughout but does not include the references page that would list the actual articles in which the information is gathered. If I am going to refer to cited sources I need the full references page included. The download reads like a powerpoint presentation throughout. There were some topics I wish were expanded. The bullet points are great, but on a few slides I didn’t clearly understand the point. A simple paragraph would have been clearer. I think the movement between information topics is a little hard to understand, so maybe a few extra slides that explain transitions would help!
Impact of Cultural and Linguistic Variables On Speech-Language Services
This smaller packet focuses on how cultural differences impact the interactions and services we provide. “This presentation provides an overview of how cultural and linguistic variables impact speech language service provision to children from bilingual and multicultural households. It covers differences between individualistic and collective cultures, cultural values towards play, differences in child-rearing practices, cultural perceptions and beliefs about disability, as well as cultural communication differences. The impact on learning of socioeconomic status as well as parental level of education is also discussed.”
Learning outcomes include:
Discuss how cultural values impact parental attitudes to assessment and intervention
List how cultural differences impact caregiver involvement and intervention expectations
Describe how levels of maternal education impact communication development
Explain impact of socioeconomic status on cognitive achievement
Summarize how cultural views on disability affect perceptions of impairment
-Values and who they relate to parenting styles
-Cultural impact of develop on topics such as play, narratives, and type of communication.
-Socioeconomic status and its impact on development
-Cultural Views on Disability
Overall I loved this packet. The appendix contains a chart that includes all the discussed elements in an easy to read format. I love that I can quickly refer to the chart when new students is referred to me. It may help me consider some of the ways in which I approach the parents during assessment. I love the full references pages where I can find extra reading!
The only improvements I can suggest for this section are some example scenarios and ways to deal with it. For example, Tatyana discussed some cultures that do not normally give many private details. How could an SLP conducting an evaluation encourage full disclosure? These are difficult topics, so some examples would be even more helpful.
Special THANKS to Tatyana for allowing me to review her packets. If you find yourself in my position, moving into a position where you are in contact with many bilingual children, you can can grab her The Multicultural Assessment and Treatment Bundle for sale on her website. I learned a lot and you will too!
Tatyana wants to give someone the chance to win a copy of their own! Just enter below by using rafflecopter. I’ll draw a winner on Friday.
Tatyana Elleseff MA CCC-SLP is a bilingual SLP with a full time hospital affiliation as well as private practice in Central, NJ. She specializes in working with multicultural, internationally and domestically adopted as well as at-risk children with complex communication disorders. For more information visit her BLOG, STORE, or follow her Facebook page.